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Historically, only Germany from to — when Germany was under the rule of an emperor Kaiser — is known in English as the "German Empire" Deutsches Kaiserreich in German historiography , while the term "German Reich" describes Germany from to Bavaria and Saxony were united with Prussia under imperial rule, by the Hohenzollern dynasty.

The title "German Emperor" was a compromise; Wilhelm I had wanted the title of "Emperor of Germany", but Bismarck refused this, so as to avoid implying a claim to extended monarchical authority over non-Prussian German kingdoms.

On 14 April , the Reichstag parliament passed the Constitution of the German Empire Verfassung des Deutschen Reiches , which was published two days later.

However, originating from the North German Confederation , the Empire never comprised all "German" lands; as it excluded Luxembourg , and those Cisleithanian crown lands of Austria-Hungary which had been part of the former German Confederation until Moreover, it included the whole of the Kingdom of Prussia , the eastern parts of which had never been included in historic German lands.

The unification under Prussian leadership manifested Bismarck's "Lesser German" solution of the German question after the Austro-Prussian War of , realised with the support of his national liberal allies.

On the other hand, the German Reich of comprised extended Prussian territories with large non-German sections of the population, like Posen , West Prussia or Schleswig , and also territories with predominantly German populations which had never been constitutionally "German", such as East Prussia.

Bismarck was otherwise unable, however, to avoid the term German Reich acquiring connotations from the English term "empire" or the Dutch term "rijk"; especially in emulation of late 19th century Imperialism , as exemplified by the British Empire , the Dutch Empire and the French colonial empire.

Although a latecomer and against Bismarck's pleading , the German Empire established colonies in modern Togo , Cameroon , Namibia , Tanzania and Polynesia ; with an extensive naval capability to support these.

At the same time strong Pan-Germanic political forces emerged, pressing for the borders of the Reich to be extended into a German-led central European multi-ethnic empire, emulating and rivalling Imperial Russia to the east.

Reich was left untranslated and no longer referred to an "empire" but, instead, took on the connotation of "Realm" or "State". Apart from official documents, post-World War I Germany was referred to as the "German Reich" — never as the "German Empire" — for example, by British politicians [7] —and the word "Reich" was used untranslated by Allied prosecutors throughout the Nuremberg Trials , with "German Empire" only used to describe Germany before it became a federal republic in At the Unification of Germany, the Reich was established constitutionally as a federation of monarchies, each having entered the federation with a defined territory; and consequently the unitary nationalism of the 'German Reich' was initially specified at Article 1 of the constitution in territorial terms, as the lands within the former boundaries of this particular subset of German monarchies [8].

This geographical understanding of the Reich became steadily superseded in the period up to the first World War by an understanding of the German Reich as a unitary nation state identified with the German national people according to the principle of jus sanguinis , and drawing on the rhetoric of "the sovereignty of the nation" in the Frankfurt Constitution [9] —albeit that many ethnic " Germans " as with the German-speaking peoples of Austria remained outside the national people constituting the German Empire of and also that the Empire of included extensive territories such as Posen with predominantly non-German populations.

This transition became formalised in the constitution of the Weimar Republic , [10] where Article 1 identifies the Reich as deriving its authority from the German national people, while Article 2 identifies the state territory under the Reich as the lands which, at the time of the constitution's adoption, were within the authority of the German state.

The identity of Reich and people ran both ways—not only did the institutions of the German state derive their legitimacy from the German people, so, too, the German people derived their inherent identity and patriotic duties from their being collectively constituted as an organ and institution of the German Reich [11].

Subsequently, the term "German Reich" continued to be applied both as identifying with the national people, and also with the state territory, but, increasingly, the application of the term to the German national people came to be seen as primary.

The — republic , which was also called German Reich, was ignored and denounced by the Nazis as a historical aberration.

The name "Weimar Republic" was first used in after Hitler referred to the period as the " Republik von Weimar " Republic of Weimar at a rally in Munich with the term later becoming mainstream during the s both within and outside Germany.

A book entitled Das Dritte Reich by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck [15] counted the medieval Holy Roman Empire as the first and the — monarchy as the second, which was then to be followed by a "reinvigorated" third one.

On 8 May , with the capitulation of the German armed forces, the supreme command of the Wehrmacht was handed over to the Allies.

The Allies refused to recognise Karl Dönitz as Reichspräsident or to recognise the legitimacy of his Flensburg Government so-called because it was based at Flensburg and controlled only a small area around the town and, on 5 June , the four powers signed the Berlin Declaration and assumed de jure supreme authority with respect to Germany.

At the Potsdam Conference , Allied-occupied Germany was defined as comprising "Germany as a whole"; and was divided into British , French , American and Soviet occupation zones; while the Allied Powers exercised the state authority assumed by the Berlin Declaration in transferring the former eastern territories of the German Reich east of the Oder—Neisse line to the Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union.

The court ruled that since the Federal Republic FRG had been partially identical with the German Reich and not merely its successor. This was explained as being because the German Democratic Republic was beyond FRG authority and because the Allied powers still had jurisdiction where "Germany as a whole" was concerned.

Nevertheless, the Court insisted that within the territory of the Federal Republic, the GDR could only be considered as one de jure German state amongst others, on the analogy of the pre-existing de jure German states that in had come together as the Federal Republic; and hence, like them, could never be accorded by the organs of the Federal Republic full recognition as a state in international law; even though the Federal Constitutional Court recognised that, within international law, the GDR was indeed an independent sovereign state.

The constitutional status of the GDR under the Basic Law still differed from that of the Länder of the Federal Republic, in that the GDR had not declared its accession to the Basic Law; but the Constitutional Court maintained that the Basic Treaty was consistent with the GDR declaring its accession at some time in the future in accordance with its own constitution; and hence the Court determined that in recognising the GDR as a de jure German State, the Basic Treaty could be interpreted as facilitating the reunification of the German Reich as indeed it eventually did.

So long as any de jure German state remained separated from the rest, the German Reich could continue to exist only in suspension; but should the GDR be reunited with the Federal Republic, the Reich would once more be fully capable of action as a sovereign state.

After , however, the claimed identity of the Federal Republic with the German Reich was not recognised by most other countries of the world. The Soviet Union, the three Western allies, and most other Western countries regarded the German Reich as still being one nation — not synonymous with either the West or East German state but rather the two states in collective.

Other countries tended to regard the German Reich as having been divided into two distinct states in international law, and accordingly accorded both states full diplomatic recognition.

As of , East Germany's official stance was that the GDR was a new state that is German in nature, a successor of the German Empire, [18] and that there were then two German states that were different nations.

When the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany between Germany and the wartime Allies was signed on 12 September , there was no mention of the term Deutsches Reich , however the Allies paraphrased the international legal personality of Germany as "Germany as a whole" in the English version of the text.

On meeting these conditions under Article 7. On the smaller denomination Reichspfennig coins, the mint mark is found on the bottom center of the coin.

Four Reichspfennig coins were issued in as part of a failed attempt by the Reichskanzler Heinrich Brüning to reduce prices through use of 4 Reichspfennig pieces instead of 5 Reichspfennig coins.

Known as the Brüningtaler or Armer Heinrich "poor Heinrich" , they were demonetized the following year. See Brüningtaler in German.

The quality of the Reichsmark coins decreased more and more towards the end of World War II and misprints happened more frequently. This led to an increase in counterfeiting of money.

Production of silver 1 Reichsmark coins ended in In , nickel 1 Reichsmark coins were introduced, and new silver 2 and 5 Reichsmark coins were introduced which were smaller but struck in.

Between and , a number of commemorative 5 Reichsmark pieces would be issued. Production of the 3 Reichsmark coin ceased altogether.

In , aluminium 50 Reichspfennig coins were introduced, initially for just the one year. In , nickel 50 Reichspfennig coins were issued and continued to be produced up to , before reverting to aluminum.

From on, all coins except the 1 Reichsmark and the first version —36 of the 5 Reichsmark coin bearing the image of the late Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg bore the Nazi state insignia.

The eagle had two standard designs on most coin denominations, a soaring eagle and large swastika depicted on most earlier issues, and a more "aggressive" eagle with less prominent swastika which became predominant in the s.

During World War II, bronze and aluminium-bronze coins were replaced by zinc and aluminium, with the 2 Reichspfennig discontinued for potential of being too easily mistaken for the 10 Reichspfennig when being struck in the same metal.

The 1, 2, and 5 Reichsmark coins were no longer issued, replaced instead by banknotes. Aluminium 50 Reichspfennig coins were reintroduced to replace the nickel versions.

This time around they had a longer run, being produced from to Lower denominations were produced in zinc from onwards. Due to their composition, these coins had poor durability and are hard to find in very good condition.

The last production of coins bearing the swastika was in 1 , 5 , 10 , and 50 Reichspfennig and 1 and 10 Reichspfennig only.

These coins were issued with designs very similar to those minted in —45, with the exception that the swastika was removed from beneath the eagle on the reverse.

The zinc 10 Reichspfennig coin was minted by Nazi Germany between and during World War II , replacing the bronze-aluminum version, which had a distinct golden color.

Made entirely of zinc , the 10 Reichspfennig is an emergency issue type, similar to the zinc 1 and 5 Reichspfennigs , and the aluminum 50 Reichspfennig coins from the same period.

The first Reichsmark banknotes were introduced by the Reichsbank and state banks such as those of Bavaria , Saxony and Baden.

The first Reichsbank issue of came in denominations of 10, 20, 50, , and Reichsmark. This was followed by a second issue in the same denominations, dated between and A 20 Reichsmark note was introduced in , using a design taken from an unissued Austrian schilling banknote type.

Five Reichsmark notes were issued in Throughout this period, the Rentenbank also issued banknotes denominated in Rentenmark, mostly in low denominations.

In preparation for the occupation of Germany, the United States issued occupation banknotes dated , printed by the Forbes Company of Boston.

These were printed in similar colours with different sizes for groups of denominations. The issuer was the Alliierte Militärbehörde "Allied military authorities" with In Umlauf gesetzt in Deutschland "in legal circulation in Germany" printed on the obverse.

The Soviet Union demanded copies of the engraving plates, ink, and associated equipment in early , and on 14 April Henry Morgenthau and Harry Dexter White of the U.

Using a printing plant in occupied Leipzig , the Soviet authorities printed large runs of occupation marks. Since these were convertible to U.

In Rhineland-Palatinate issued 5 and 10 Pfennig notes with Geldschein on them. Coins and banknotes for circulation in the occupied territories during the war were issued by the Reichskreditkassen.

Holed, zinc coins in 5 and 10 Reichspfennig denominations were struck in and Banknotes were issued between and in denominations of 50 Reichspfennig, 1, 2, 5, 20, and 50 Reichsmark.

These served as legal tender alongside the currency of the occupied countries. The coins were originally planned in great numbers of million and million, Rpf 5 and 10 Rpf respectively.

The first embossing order, which was issued in April , was about 40 million 5 Rpf and million 10 Rpf. The total amount was divided between each of the seven German mints after the embossing key of The contract was stopped in August as the Wehrmacht, which had requested the coins for Belgium and France, had no more need of it.

When the embossing stopped, only Berlin "A" and Munich "D" produced significant quantities, but they still came to only a small extent of original production plans.

The majority were melted down due to the limited supply of metal and thus, most mint marks are now quite rare except for 5 A and D, and 10 A.

Special issues of Reichsmark currency were issued for use by the German Armed Forces from to This series was unifaced.

The second issue notes of 1, 5, 10, and 50 Reichsmark were equal in value to the ordinary German Reichsmark and were printed on both sides.

There were different AMCs for each liberated area of Europe. Various special issues of Reichsmark currency were issued for use in concentration and prisoner of war POW camps.

None were legal tender in Germany itself. From to tokens were struck for use within the Lodz Ghetto. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from German reichsmark. It is not to be confused with RM. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

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Prewar bronze 1 Reichspfennig reverse with color similar to U.

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